Suppose the edit is binary, a state is bivalent if both outputs are possible, and if the output is only 0/1, the state is called 0-valent/1-valent. The basic idea is to establish a contradiction by performing certain operations to obtain a state that is both 0-valent and 1-valent. Unlike the unauthorized participation rules mentioned above, which reward all participants in proportion to the amount of investment in a stock or resource, proof of personality protocols aim to give each real human participant exactly one unit of voting rights by consensus without authorization, regardless of economic investments.   Among the approaches proposed to achieve a distribution of consensus power for proof of personality among a person are physical pseudo-parties social networks, pseudonymized government-issued identities and biometric data.  Three problems with the agreement are interesting: therefore, a consensus protocol that tolerates Byzantine errors must withstand any errors that may arise. Different calculation models can define a “consensus problem”. Some models may be interested in fully connected graphs, while others may manipulate rings and trees. In some models, news authentication is allowed, while in other processes, anonymity is completely anonymous. Shared memory models, in which processes communicate by accessing objects in shared memory, are also an important area of research. The problem of consensus can be taken into account in asynchronous or synchronous systems. While in the real world, communication is often asynchronous in nature, it is more convenient and often easier to model synchronous systems, because asynchronous systems naturally involve more problems than synchronous systems. For n processes in a semi-synchronous system (the system alternates between good and bad synchronization periods), each process chooses a private value. Processes communicate with each other through cycles to identify a public value and generate a consensus vector with the following requirements: A protocol that can properly guarantee consensus between processes where t at most are down is called t-resilient.
The problem of consensus is a fundamental problem in the control of multi-agent systems. One approach to consensus building is for all processes (agents) to agree on a majority value. In this context, a majority requires at least more than half of the available votes (each process getting one vote). However, one or more faulty processes can distort the resulting result in such a way that consensus may not be reached or poorly achieved. Google has set up a library of distributed locking services called Chubby.  Chubby manages lock information in small files stored in a replicated database to achieve high availability in the event of an outage. The database is implemented on an error-compatible protocol layer, based on Paxos` consensus algorithm. . . .