Trading emission reductions between countries and indication of the price of carbon It contains provisions that leave the door open to both emissions trading and progress in the development of carbon pricing systems. The title “Cooperative Approaches” establishes the possibility of an international transfer of mitigation results (international emissions trading) and the establishment of a mechanism for reduction and sustainable development. The first conference was held in Berlin in 1995. The first meetings of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP) were held in 2005 in conjunction with COP 11. The 2013 conference was held in Warsaw. Subsequent COPs were held in Lima, Peru, in 2014 and in Paris, France, in 2015. The 2015 event, COP 21, aimed to keep the average global temperature increase below 2 degrees Celsius.  COP 22 was scheduled for Marrakech, Morocco, and COP 23 for Bonn. The final objectives negotiated in the protocol are the result of last-minute political compromises.  The objectives are closely linked to those of The Argentine Raul Estrada, the diplomat who led the negotiations.  The figures that President Estrada made available to each party were based on the objectives already promised by the parties, on the information received on the most recent negotiating positions and on the objective of achieving the best possible environmental outcome.
 The final objectives are lower than those proposed by some parties, for example. B the Alliance of Small Island States, the G-77 and China, but stronger than those proposed by other parties, for example. B Canada and the United States.  United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), 1992. The pioneering agreement [PDF], ratified by 197 countries, including the United States, was the first global agreement to explicitly address climate change. It has established an annual forum called the Conference of the Parties (COP) for international discussions aimed at stabilizing the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. These meetings gave birth to the Kyoto Protocol and the Paris Agreement. Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), bush gas (N2O), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and ozone (O3).
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